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This part of biochemistry is often called molecular biology. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Maurice Wilkins were instrumental in solving DNA structure and suggesting its relationship with genetic transfer of information.

Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene and its role in the transfer of information in the cell.

The relevance of finding homologies among proteins goes beyond forming an evolutionary pattern of protein families.

By finding how similar two protein sequences are, we acquire knowledge about their structure and therefore their function.

It was once generally believed that life and its materials had some essential property or substance (often referred to as the "vital principle") distinct from any found in non-living matter, and it was thought that only living beings could produce the molecules of life. hler published a paper on the synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created artificially.

Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations.

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